In the last few years farmers’ tendency towards papaya cultivation is increasing. From the point of view of area it is the fifth popular fruit of our country. It is twelve months, but it is especially specially from February to March between May to October, because its successful cultivation ranges from 10 degrees. From 40 degrees to Temperature is suitable. Its fruits are good sources of vitamin A and C. Along with vitamins, papaya is found in an enzyme called Papen which helps in removing excess body fat. As well as being beneficial for health, papaya is one of the least prepared fruits, which is useful in both raw and ripe forms. Its economic value is due to the addition of fresh fruits due to Papen, which is used in many industrial works (such as food processing, textile industry etc.).
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Role
- 3 Varieties of papaya
- 4 Flowers of Papaya
- 5 Papaya tree
- 6 Climate for papaya
- 7 Papaya cultivable land or soil
- 8 Papaya sowing
- 9 Papaya planting
- 10 Planting Seeds in Plastic Bags
- 11 Pit preparation and planting
- 12 Use of fertilizers
- 13 Insects, disease and prevention in papayas
- 14 Irrigation for good production of papaya
- 15 Papaya yield
The fruit of papaya is slightly taller and spherical and pulp is yellow. There are black colored seeds in the middle of the pulp. In the upper part of the tree, the fruit of papaya comes under the circle of leaves so that it can protect the fructose of the soft fruit. Raw papaya is green and green is yellow after ripening. Nowadays varieties of papaya of seeds have been invented in the new castes. The weight of a papaya can range from 300, 400 grams to 1 kilogram of gram.
The papaya trees are different in the form of males and females, but sometimes the same kind of flowers bloom in the same tree. Hawaiian and Mexican papayas are very famous. Indian papaya is also very tasty. According to different varieties, there may be a slight variation in their taste.
Papaya is healthy and rich in vitamin A. Papaya is found in tropical America. The botanical name of papayi is Kerika Papaya. Papaya is an important member of Caricacy family. Papaya is a multivariate plant, and from the pimples three types of sex, male, female and both male and female gender are on a tree. Both papaya ripe and raw fruits are useful. Papa is made from raw fruits. Which is widely used in the beauty and industry world. Papaya is an evergreen sweet fruit, which is delicious and gourmet. It is produced everywhere in our country. It is twelve months, but it is especially born between February-March and May to October. Its raw fruit becomes green and yellow becomes yellow. Ripe papaya is sweet, heavy, hot, flavored and sour. Papaya produces pity and mood swings.
Papaya is a very fast growing tree. This tree grows well if you get ordinary ground, some heat and good sun, but it does not get much water or more amounts of saline in the ground. Its height is around 10-12 feet. As the tree grows, one leaf falls from below and leaves its trail on the stem. The stem is completely green or brown and hollow from the inside. The leaves are only in the upper part of the tree. At one time 80 to 100 fruits are also used on a tree.
Papaya is a very healthy, fast-growing fruit rich in nutrients. Which is used in ripe and raw form. Economic importance is also due to Papen in addition to fresh fruits. Which is used in many industrial works. Therefore, the popularity of its cultivation is increasing day by day, and in view of the area it is the fifth popular fruit of our country. In most parts of the country, the area of horticulture is growing steadily from the house’s garden to the gardens. It is being cultivated in different states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Assam, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttaranchal and Mizoram. Therefore, scientific methods and techniques for its successful production By using the farmers can benefit themselves and the nation financially. For this, the technical things should be kept in mind.
Varieties of papaya
The details of the main varieties of papaya are as follows-
This is the gainodaisiyash species of high-yielding papaya. In which the female and the male and female two types of flowers come on the same plant, the taste of the ripe fruit is sweet and attractive to the aroma.
This is also a gainodaisiyash species. Its productivity is high, and storage capacity is also high.
‘Red Lady 786’
A new variety of papaya has been developed by Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana, which has been named ‘Red Lady 786’. This is a hybrid variety. This kind of condition is that the male and female flowers are on the plant, so every plant is guaranteed to get fruit.
In other varieties of papaya, male and female flowers are planted on different plants, in such a way it is difficult to identify which plant is male and which female. One of the new varieties of this is that it does not contain ‘Papyric Skat Virus’ in Sadhan Papaya. This kind is ready in just 9 months.
The storage capacity of this type of plant is also high. Anti-oxidant nutrient content in Papaya contains many other potent elements, including carotene, potassium, magnesium, fiber and vitamin A, B, C, which are extremely beneficial for the health.
The scientists of Punjab Agricultural University, after searching for nearly 3 years, gave it to the farmers to grow in Punjab. Well it is being grown in Haryana, Delhi, western Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Rajasthan too.
Flowers of Papaya
This variety is considered to be very high growth. Male and female flowers are found on different plants. Plants do not fall from strong and fast winds.
It is said to be a small growing dadiyash variety, in which male and female flowers come on different plants. Fruits are medium and oval shaped.
The plants of this species are very small. And it is more useful for the housework. Also suitable for successful gardening.
Plant is small and Diciara. Fruits are medium-sized and round.
This is a genomic species species. The plant is long, strong and middle-sized. The amount of sugar in the ripe fruit is high. And pulp is reddish.
Honeyueu (honey point)
The number of male plants is less in this plant, and the cases of seeds are more beneficial. Its fruit is very sweet and smells of medium size.
This is a genomic species race. There are no male plants in it. The size of the fruit is medium and perpendicular. The color of the pulp is orange yellow.
It is a species grown in different climates giving more yield. Stems of the leaves of this plant are of colored pigment. Those who identify this kind. It is a daisian variety, fruit is sweet, pulp is yellow and has good aroma.
This type of plant is small and Diciara. Fruits are medium-sized rounds. Fruits are sweet and fragrant and yellow pulp. It is a good type of food cooker and it is more useful to grow in the area like lowland and Bhav.
Climate for papaya
Papaya is a tropical fruit, but it can also be cultivated in temperate climate. There is a bad effect on plant growth due to excessive cold. The fruits of its fruit stops. Hot weather is better for fruits to grow and sweeteners.
Papaya cultivable land or soil
Loamous soil is good for successful production of this papaya. The proper arrangement of water in the field is important, because the root of the papaya plant and the filling of the water near the stem, the stem of the plant starts rotting. The pH value of the soil should be 6.5 to 7.5 in the case of this papaya.
For papaya, a soft loam or loam soil in which drainage is good is best. Therefore, this should be selected for dry, ventilated, black fertile land and its acetic should be between 6.5-7.5 and water should not stop at all. Middle black and alluvial land is also good for this.
It is primarily tropical fruit; The temperature should not be less than 22-26 degrees to gray 0 and 10 degrees to 0 gray because it is cold and lanky because its plants and fruits are both affected. Its gross production requires comparative high temperatures, low humidity and adequate moisture.
Due to lack of control of papaya in the papaya and due to seed amplification, there are variables in the same type and variation is found in the same type. So it is difficult to estimate male and female plants before flowering. Among these are some popular varieties which are grown in different parts of the country and more number of female flowering plants are main. Honeydew or honey point, Kurg Honeydew, Washington, Co-1, KY-2, Koi-3, Koy-5, KY-6, M.F.-1 and Pusa Maestri are the major for fruit production and Papay production. In northern India the temperature of the temperature is high. Therefore, varieties of bisexual flowers are not able to produce properly. Koi-1, Punjab Sweet, Pusa Delliasias, Pusa Maasti, Pusa giant, Pusa dwarf, Pusa tinha (Mutants) etc. in which varieties of female flowers are more bisexual, they are very successful in Northern India. The ‘Solo’ type of Hawaii that contains bisexual and female plants, its fruit is small and low in Northern India.
Business production of papaya is done by the seeds. For its successful production it is necessary that the seed is of good quality. In case of seeds, the following points should be noted:
1. The time for seeding is from July to September and February-March.
2. Seeds should be taken from good quality and good fruits. Since this new variety is of hybrid species, therefore every new seed should be sown.
3. Seeds can be sown in karias, wooden boxes, clay pots and polyethylene bags.
4. The tides should be 15 cm high and 1 meter wide from the surface of the ground.
5. The dung compost, Compost or Vermicom compost should be added in sufficient quantity in the shifts. To protect the plant from thawing disease, the khiris should be treated with a solution of 1: 40 of pharmacine and seeds should be sown by treating 0.1% of copper oxychloride solution.
6. When the plants are 8-10 centimeters long, then they move them from Kri to Polyethylene.
7. When plants grow 15 centimeter, then 0.3 percent of fungicide should be sprayed.
Growing plants in the nursery is very important for the production of papaya. For this, the amount of seed is sufficient for 500 hectares of hectare. The seeds are fully cooked, well dried and placed in a glass jar or bottle whose face is covered and it is not suitable for 6 months, it is appropriate. Before seeding, seed should be treated with 3gms of keptan and one kg seed.
In order to sow seeds, which should be hiking upside down from the ground, can also use large pots or wooden boxes. To prepare them, prepare the mixture by mixing the manure, sand, and dung of the dung in equal quantity. The place where the nursery should be, should be cleaned, rinsed and cleaned with all the pebbles and weeds and treated the soil with 2% of the Foremilin. The place where high incense and more shade should not be chosen. Plants grown for 40 acres of land in an area of 4059 meters are enough. Add 2.5 x 10 x 0.5 into the mixture, mix the above mixture well, and flatten it with the top. After that fold the mixture, make a row on the gap of 3 ‘x 6’ at 1/2 ‘depth and then cover the treated seeds and then fold it with a mixture of 1/2’ dung manure compost so that the seed does not remain on top of the seed. . If used to grow gumlas or boxes, then use this mixture as well. Cover the boiled bears covered with dry grass or straw and water in the evening by the hose. Within 15-20 days of seeding the seed gets frozen. When these plants contain 4-5 leaves and height 25 cm After two months, it should be transplanted in the field two months before the transplantation, the gums should be kept in the sun, excess irrigation causes it to rot and boil. Seeds in nurseries in northern India should grow in March-April, June-August.
At a distance of 2×2 meters in a well prepared farm, dig 50x50x50 cm pits in the month of May and leave open for 15 days so that the pits are well sunny and the harmful insects, germs, etc. may be destroyed. Visit
After planting, the pit should be filled with 50 grams of aldrin, soils of mud and dung should be filled in such a way that it is 10-15 cm high above the ground. After feeding the pit, irrigation should be done, so that the soil should sit well.
By the way, papaya plants are planted in the months of June-July or February-March, but more rain and colder areas should be applied in September or February-March. Until the plants grow well, light irrigation should be done every afternoon.
Planting Seeds in Plastic Bags
It requires 200 gauge and 20 x 15 cm padded bags. Those who tease the bottom and sides of a nail and make a mixture of 1: 1: 1: 1 leaf manure, rate, dung and clay and fill it in bags. Spread two or three seeds in each bag. At appropriate height, plants transplant the fields. When transplanting, part of the plate should be torn off.
Pit preparation and planting
Before planting the plant, the farm should be well prepared by preparing the field so that the water can not be filled. Then for papaya, digging of 50x50x50 to 0m pits 1.5×1.5 meter should be digged and 30 grams of BHC in each pit. 10 percent of the dust should be treated together. For heightening varieties, keep 1.8 x1.8 meters apart. Plants put on 20-25 to 0 m. When taking the plants, keep in mind that the pit should be covered so that the water does not start with the stem.
Use of fertilizers
Papaya starts giving fast results. That’s why it needs more fertile land. Therefore, to take good harvest, 200 gm nitrogen, 250 g phosphorus and 500 grams of potash per plant is required. In addition to this, every year 20-25 kg per acre of manure is required for manure, one kilogram of bombs and one kg of neem cake. Only three times of the compost should be given in equal proportion in the months of March-April, July-August and October.
Papaya is a fast growing and fruit-bearing plant due to which nutrient content is released from the land. Therefore, to achieve good yield, 250 gm nitrogen, 150 gm phosphorus and 250 gm potash per plant should be given every year. By distributing the amount of nitrogen in 6 parts, after 2 months of planting the plant every day
Insects, disease and prevention in papayas
Primarily, there is no harm from any worms, but viruses are helpful in spreading disease. It contains the following diseases:
Stem and stem from root cause disease
In it, the upper part of the stem starts to fall flat on the floor near the ground and the roots also start melting. The leaves go happily and the plant dies. For its treatment, the improvement in drainage and the plants that have been wrecked should be quickly uprooted and thrown. Spraying a percentage of Voddox mixture or copper oxychloride on plants is dissolved in 2 grams per liter of water and there is considerable prevention.
In the nursery only small plants die from the bottom. Before sowing seeds to avoid this, Seresen Agronson G.N. Should be treated with treatment and seed beds should be treated with 2.5% pharmaldehyde solution.
Moussec (turning of leaves): The leaves of the affected leaves become yellow and the stalk is small and shrinking in the shape. 250 mins for this Lee It is very beneficial to dissolve and spread the malathen 50 E C 250 liter of water.
Champa: The children and young people of this pest suck the juice of all the parts of the plant and spread the virus. To prevent it, dissolve dimethoate 30 EC 1.5 ml or Pfspomaididal 5 ml in 1 liter of water and sprinkle it.
Red spider: The attack of this insect is on leaves and fruits. Due to its outbreak the leaves fall yellow and later the red becomes brown. For its prevention, dissolve thiamethoate 30 EC 1.5 ml in 1 liter of water and sprinkle it.
Dissociation of the condition: This disease is caused by cough syrup called pityum freujierium. Growth of patient plants stops. The leaves fall yellow and the plants fall down. For its prevention, rinse the diseased portion and rinse 2 grams of brasilol in 1 liter of water and sprinkle it.
Shyam Chakra: The effect of this disease is on leaves and fruits, which increases their growth. This leaves brown spots above the fruit. To prevent this, blighttaking 3 gm of 1 lit water should be dissolved and sprinkled.
Irrigation for good production of papaya
Due to lack of water and no weeding, there is a great effect on the production of papaya. Therefore, in the climate of South India, water should be given 8-10 days in winter and 6 days in summer. In northern India, irrigation should be done twice in the week from April to June and 15 days in winter. It is important to keep in mind that water does not touch the stem, otherwise the plant will have a scary illness, so the soil around the stem should be kept high. For papaya’s garden to remain clean, for every irrigation, there should be a slight rift around the trees.
The proper arrangement of irrigation is extremely important for good production of papaya. Irrigation should be done within 6-7 days in summer and within 10-12 days in winter. Irrigation is needed when there is no rain in the rainy season. Water should not come in direct contact with the stem. For this, soil should be placed around the stem.
All weeds in the papaya garden grow, which compete with the papaya plant for moisture, nutrients, air and light etc. from the ground, thereby reversing the plant’s growth and production. According to the need for rescue from weeds, we should do the same. Due to the constant irrigation, the surface of the soil becomes very hard, thereby affecting the plant’s growth. So 2-3 times after irrigation, the plate should be lightly weathered.
Generally, the advanced varieties of papaya yield 35-50 kg per plant, whereas this new variety gets 2-3 times more yield.
Source: Xavier Social Services Institute, Wikipedia, Daily News |